Life-Table Analysis of Progression to Diabetes of Anti-Insulin Autoantibody-Positive Relatives of Individuals With Type I Diabetes
- Anette G Ziegler,
- Ralph Ziegler,
- Pnina Vardi,
- Richard A Jackson,
- J Stuart Soeldner and
- George S Eisenbarth
- Joslin Diabetes Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, New England Deaconess Hospital, and Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel; and the University of California Davis, Sacramento, California
- Address correspondence and reprint requests to G.S. Eisenbarth, MD, PhD, Joslin Diabetes Center, One Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02215.
Cytoplasmic islet cell antibody–negative (ICA−; <20 Juvenile Diabetes Foundation units, n = 1670) and ICA+ (n = 42) first-degree relatives of type I (insulindependent) diabetic individuals were studied for competitive insulin autoantibodies (ClAAs) with a radioassay. Overall, 3.7% of first-degree relatives (64 of 1712) were CIAA+. Of ICA− relatives, 2.7% (45 of 1670) exceeded the upper limit of our normal CIAA range (>39 nU/ml), and 45% (19 of 42) of ICA+ relatives exceeded this normal range. Follow-up serums for repeat CIAA determination have been obtained from 16 of the nondiabetic CIAA/ICA individuals (time between samples, 0.4–5.8 yr). Fourteen of these 16 (87%) CIAA/ICA relatives were found to still be positive on follow-up, and 2 of the relatives who were positive on the first determination were negative on their follow-up test. With a mean follow-up of ∼2 yr, 4 of 45 (9%) of the CIAA+/ICA-relatives, 5 of 23 (22%) of the ICA/CIAA-relatives, and 12 of 19 (63%) of the CIAA+/ICA+ relatives developed diabetes. Life-table analysis indicated that, overall, 53% of CIAA+ relatives become diabetic after 5 yr of follow-up versus 65% of ICA+ relatives. Also by life-table analysis, the predicted risk after 5 yr of follow-up for progression to diabetes is 17% for CIAA+/ICA− relatives, 42% for ICA+/CIAA− relatives, and 77% for CIAA/ICA+ relatives. The highest rate of progression to diabetes was found in ICA+ relatives with CIAA levels >150 nU/ml (100% projected to be diabetic within 5 yr, P < .008 vs. ICA/CIAA relatives).
- Received December 19, 1988.
- Revision received June 14, 1989.
- Accepted June 14, 1989.
- Copyright © 1989 by the American Diabetes Association