Mutational analysis of the coding regions of the genes encoding protein kinase B-alpha and -beta, phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1, phosphatase targeting to glycogen, protein phosphatase inhibitor-1, and glycogenin: lessons from a search for genetic variability of the insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis pathway of skeletal muscle in NIDDM patients.
The finding of a reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in the skeletal muscle of glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives of patients with NIDDM, as well as in cultured fibroblasts and skeletal muscle cells isolated from NIDDM patients, has been interpreted as evidence for a genetic involvement in the disease. The mode of inheritance of the common forms of NIDDM is as yet unclear, but the prevailing hypothesis supports a polygenic model. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the putative inheritable defects of insulin-stimulated muscle glycogen synthesis might be caused by genetic variability in the genes encoding proteins shown by biochemical evidence to be involved in insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle. In 70 insulin-resistant Danish NIDDM patients, mutational analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism-heteroduplex analysis was performed on genomic DNA or skeletal muscle-derived cDNAs encoding glycogenin, protein phosphatase inhibitor-1, phophatase targeting to glycogen, protein kinase B-alpha and -beta, and the phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1. Although a number of silent variants were identified in some of the examined genes, we found no evidence for the hypothesis that the defective insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle in NIDDM is caused by structural changes in the genes encoding the known components of the insulin-sensitive glycogen synthesis pathway of skeletal muscle.