Triggering and amplifying pathways of regulation of insulin secretion by glucose.
Glucose stimulates insulin secretion by generating triggering and amplifying signals in beta-cells. The triggering pathway is well characterized. It involves the following sequence of events: entry of glucose by facilitated diffusion, metabolism of glucose by oxidative glycolysis, rise in the ATP-to-ADP ratio, closure of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, membrane depolarization, opening of voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, Ca2+ influx, rise in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), and activation of the exocytotic machinery. The amplifying pathway can be studied when beta-cell [Ca2+]i is elevated and clamped by a depolarization with either a high concentration of sulfonylurea or a high concentration of K+ in the presence of diazoxide (K(ATP) channels are then respectively blocked or held open). Under these conditions, glucose still increases insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase in secretion is highly sensitive to glucose (produced by as little as 1-6 mmol/l glucose), requires glucose metabolism, is independent of activation of protein kinases A and C, and does not seem to implicate long-chain acyl-CoAs. Changes in adenine nucleotides may be involved. The amplification consists of an increase in efficacy of Ca2+ on exocytosis of insulin granules. There exists a clear hierarchy between both pathways. The triggering pathway predominates over the amplifying pathway, which remains functionally silent as long as [Ca2+]i has not been raised by the first pathway; i.e., as long as glucose has not reached its threshold concentration. The alteration of this hierarchy by long-acting sulfonylureas or genetic inactivation of K(ATP) channels may lead to inappropriate insulin secretion at low glucose. The amplifying pathway serves to optimize the secretory response not only to glucose but also to nonglucose stimuli. It is impaired in beta-cells of animal models of type 2 diabetes, and indirect evidence suggests that it is altered in beta-cells of type 2 diabetic patients. Besides the available drugs that act on K(ATP) channels and increase the triggering signal, novel drugs that correct a deficient amplifying pathway would be useful to restore adequate insulin secretion in type 2 diabetic patients.