Prevention of Hypoglycemia Using Risk Assessment With a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System
- Carine Choleau1,
- Petr Dokladal2,
- Jean-Claude Klein2,
- W. Kenneth Ward3,
- George S. Wilson4 and
- Gérard Reach1
Due to the lag between sugar intake and the beginning of recovery from hypoglycemia, it is necessary to intervene in an anticipatory way if one wants to prevent, not only detect, hypoglycemia. This article presents the principle of a hypoglycemia prevention system based on risk assessment. The risk situation can be defined as the moment when the system estimates that the glucose concentration is expected to reach a hypoglycemia threshold in less than a given time (e.g., 20 min). Since there are well-known discrepancies between blood and interstitial glucose concentrations, the aim of this experimental study performed in nondiabetic rats was first to validate this strategy, and second to determine whether it can work when the glucose concentration is estimated by a glucose sensor in subcutaneous tissue rather than in blood. We used a model of controlled decrease in blood glucose concentration. A glucose infusion, the profile of which mimicked the appearance of glucose from an intragastric load, was administered either when hypoglycemia was detected or on the basis of risk recognition. Despite the lag between the beginning of the load and that of the increase in blood glucose concentration, which was in all experiments 15–20 min, hypoglycemia was fully prevented without overshoot hyperglycemia in the groups of rats in which the glucose load was started when the hypoglycemia risk was detected, on the basis of either blood or interstitial glucose concentration. This was, of course, not the case when the same glucose load was infused at the detection of the hypoglycemia threshold.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Pr. Gérard Reach, INSERM U341, Diabetes Department, 1 Place du Parvis Notre Dame, 75004, Paris, France. E-mail:.
Received for publication 15 May 2002 and accepted in revised form 19 August 2002.
ECU, electronic control unit.