Evidence for Linkage of Triglyceride Levels to Chromosome 19q
Macrovascular disease is a major complication of type 2 diabetes. Epidemiological data suggest that the risk of macrovascular complications may predate the onset of hyperglycemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of HDL cholesterol, and an atherogenic profile characterize the insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome that is also prevalent among nondiabetic members of familial type 2 diabetic kindreds. To identify the genes for lipid-related traits, we first performed a 10-cM genome scan using 440 markers in 379 members of 19 multiplex families ascertained for two diabetic siblings (screening study). We then extended findings for three regions with initial logarithm of odds (LOD) scores >1.5 to an additional 23 families, for a total of 576 genotyped individuals (extended study). We found heritabilities for all lipid measures in the range of 0.31 to 0.52, similar to those reported by others in unselected families. However, we found the strongest evidence for linkage of triglyceride levels to chromosome 19q13.2, very close to the ApoC2/ApoE/ApoC1/ApoC4 gene cluster (LOD 2.56) in the screening study; the LOD increased to 3.16 in the extended study. Triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratios showed slightly lower LOD scores (2.73, extended family) in this same location. Other regions with LOD scores >2.0 included HDL linkage to chromosome 1q21-q23, where susceptibility loci for both familial type 2 diabetes and familial combined hyperlipidemia have been mapped, and to chromosome 2q in the region of the NIDDM1 locus. Neither region showed stronger evidence for linkage in the extended studies, however. Our results suggest that genes in or near the ApoE/ApoC2/ApoC1/ApoC4 cluster on 19q13.2 may contribute to the commonly observed hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL seen in diabetic family members and their offspring, and thus may be a candidate locus for the insulin resistance syndrome.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Steven C. Elbein, Professor of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Endocrinology 111J-1, 4300 West 7th St., Little Rock, AR 72205-7199. E-mail:.
Received for publication 27 April 2001 and accepted in revised form 6 November 2001.
ApoC1, apolipoprotein CI; ApoC2, apolipoprotein CII; ApoC4, apolipoprotein CIV; ApoE, apolipoprotein E; FCHL, familial combined hyperlipidemia; LOD, logarithm of odds; SOLAR, Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines; TG, triglyceride; WHO, World Health Organization.