Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Maintenance of the Characteristics of Mature 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
- From the Division of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, Department of Clinical Molecular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan
Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-γ plays an important role in adipogenesis. However, the functions of PPAR-γ in differentiated adipocytes have remained unclear. The role of PPAR-γ in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes was therefore investigated by overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of this protein (PPAR-γ-ΔC) that lacks the 16 COOH-terminal amino acids and that has been shown to prevent the thiazolidinedione-induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. Overexpression of PPAR-γ-ΔC in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by adenovirus gene transfer resulted in a decrease in both cell size and intracellular triglyceride content, an increase in the extent of lipolysis, and a reduction in the rate of free fatty acid uptake. Furthermore, overexpression of this mutant reduced the abundance of mRNAs for several key enzymes that contribute to triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism as well as the amounts of GLUT4, insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS), and C/EBPα mRNAs. It also reduced both the concentration of IRS2 and the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These results suggest that PPAR-γ plays an important role in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes at least in part by maintaining the expression of genes that confer the characteristics of mature adipocytes.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Yoshikazu Tamori, Division of Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases, Department of Clinical Molecular Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan. E-mail:.
Received for publication 26 July 2001 and accepted in revised form 16 March 2002.
ACS, acyl-CoA synthase; CAP, c-Cbl–associated protein; C/EBPα, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α; DMEM, Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium; FFA, free fatty acid; HSL, hormone-sensitive lipase; IR, insulin receptor; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; KRH, Krebs-Ringer-HEPES; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; MOI, multiplicity of infection; PEPCK, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; PFU, plaque-forming units; PPAR, peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α; TZD, thiazolidinedione.