Delayed Transcapillary Transport of Insulin to Muscle Interstitial Fluid in Obese Subjects
- Mikaela Sjöstrand1,
- Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir1,
- Agneta Holmäng2,
- Lars Lönn3,
- Lena Strindberg1 and
- Peter Lönnroth1
- 1Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden
- 2Wallenberg Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden
- 3Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden
Insulin-resistant subjects have a slow onset of insulin action, and the underlying mechanism has not been determined. To evaluate whether a delayed transcapillary transport is part of the peripheral insulin resistance, we followed the kinetics of infused insulin and inulin in plasma and muscle interstitial fluid in obese insulin-resistant patients and control subjects. A total of 10 lean and 10 obese men (BMI 24 ± 0.8 vs. 32 ± 0.8 kg/m2, P < 0.001) was evaluated during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion rate 120 mU · m−2 · min−1) combined with an inulin infusion. Measurements of insulin and inulin in plasma were taken by means of arterial-venous catheterization of the forearm and microdialysis in brachioradialis muscle combined with forearm blood flow measurements with vein occlusion pletysmography. The obese subjects had a significantly lower steady-state glucose infusion rate and, moreover, demonstrated a delayed appearance of insulin (time to achieve half-maximal concentration [T1/2] 72 ± 6 vs. 46 ± 6 min in control subjects, P < 0.05) as well as inulin (T1/2 83 ± 3 vs. 53 ± 7 min, P < 0.01) in the interstitial fluid. Also, the obese subjects had a delayed onset of insulin action (T1/2 70 ± 9 vs. 45 ± 5 min in control subjects, P < 0.05), and their forearm blood flow rate was significantly lower. These results demonstrate a delayed transcapillary transport of insulin and inulin from plasma to the muscle interstitial fluid and a delayed onset of insulin action in insulin-resistant obese subjects.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Mikaela Sjö strand, MD, Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, S-413 45 Göteborg, Sweden. E-mail:.
Received for publication 13 February 2002 and accepted in revised form 23 May 2002.
A-V, arterial-venous; CT, computed tomography; GIR, glucose infusion rate; HGP, hepatic glucose production; PS, permeability surface area product; T1/2, time to achieve half-maximal concentration; Tmax, time to achieve maximal concentration.