Hypothesis: Shifting the Equilibrium From Activity to Food Leads to Autonomic Unbalance and the Metabolic Syndrome

  1. Felix Kreier123,
  2. Ajda Yilmaz1,
  3. Andries Kalsbeek1,
  4. Johannes A. Romijn2,
  5. Hans P. Sauerwein3,
  6. Eric Fliers3 and
  7. Ruud M. Buijs1
  1. 1Netherlands Institute for Brain Research, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, the
  2. 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  3. 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Felix Kreier, Meibergdreef 33, 1105 AZ Amsterdam. E-mail: f.kreier{at}


The stability of the internal environment is the condition that life should be free and independent… So, far from the higher animal being indifferent to the external world, it is on the contrary in a precise and informed relation with it, in such a way that its equilibrium results from a continuous and delicate compensation, established as by the most sensitive of balances.”

Claude Bernard (1865)


    • Accepted July 22, 2003.
    • Received February 14, 2003.
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