Glucose Toxicity in β-Cells: Type 2 Diabetes, Good Radicals Gone Bad, and the Glutathione Connection
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Four biochemical pathways that are sensitive to glucose and produce ROS (see text). The islet is particularly at risk for
chronic oxidative stress when exposed to long-term hyperglycemia because it expresses very low levels of antioxidant mRNA,
protein, and activity (see text and Table 1.).