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Flow chamber housing the islets. Media equilibrated with gas entered the bottom of the chamber (2.5 mm internal diameter)
and percolated up through the porous frit, continuously supplying the islets with fresh media. The total volume of the chamber
was ∼200 μl. Oxygen consumption was measured by lifetime detection of an oxygen-sensitive phosphorescent dye that was painted
on the interior of the glass chamber ∼1 cm above the islets. Measurement of cytochrome reduction was done by detecting the
absorption of light by the islets in the chamber. Excitation and detection of light was transmitted to the sources and detection
systems via optical fibers.