Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Functional Polymorphisms in RANTES Receptor Gene (CCR5)
A Sex-Specific Effect
- Wojciech M. Mlynarski1,2,3,
- Grzegorz P. Placha1,2,
- Pawel P. Wolkow1,2,
- Jacek P. Bochenski1,2,
- James H. Warram1 and
- Andrzej S. Krolewski1,2
- 1Section on Genetics and Epidemiology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts
- 2Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
- 3Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
- Address correspondence and reprint requests to Andrzej S. Krolewski, MD, PhD, Section on GeneticsEpidemiology, Joslin Diabetes Center, 1 Joslin Place, Boston, MA 02215. E-mail:
Chemokines and their receptors have been implicated in the development of diabetic nephropathy. To determine whether the risk of diabetic nephropathy is influenced by two functional polymorphisms in the regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) receptor gene (CCR5), we recruited patients with type 1 diabetes, including 496 case subjects with overt proteinuria or end-stage renal disease and 298 control subjects with normoalbuminuria. Male carriers of the 59029G allele, which is associated with diminished expression of CCR5 on the surface of immunocompetent cells, had significantly higher risk of developing diabetic nephropathy than noncarriers (OR [95% CI] 1.9 [1.2–3.0]). Similarly, male carriers of the 32-bp deletion, which causes truncation of the protein, had significantly higher risk of diabetic nephropathy than noncarriers (2.3 [1.3–4.2]). Combining both polymorphisms, three haplotypes were distinguished: one nonrisk haplotype carrying the 59029A allele and the 32-bp insertion and two risk haplotypes carrying the 59029A allele with the 32-bp deletion and carrying the 59029G allele with the 32-bp insertion. The distribution of these haplotypes differed significantly (P < 0.00001) in men with and without diabetic nephropathy but was not associated with diabetic nephropathy in women. In conclusion, two functional polymorphisms in CCR5 that decrease expression of the RANTES receptor on immunocompetent cells are associated with increased risk of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes, but only in men.
- ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio
- ESRD, end-stage renal disease
- RANTES, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted
- Received January 27, 2005.
- Accepted July 27, 2005.