Insulin resistance causes mitochondrial overproduction of ROS in macrovascular endothelial cells by increasing FFA flux and
oxidation. From Hofmann S, Brownlee M: Biochemistry and molecular cell biology of diabetic complications: a unifying mechanism.
In Diabetes Mellitus: A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 3rd ed. LeRoith D, Taylor SI, Olefsky JM, Eds. Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p. 1441–1457, 2004.