Immunohistochemical detection of hemagglutinin and different islet and ductal cell markers in kidney sections containing Adv-CA-Akt
grafts. Kidney sections from mice transplanted with 1,500 Adv-LacZ or 1,500 Adv-CA-Akt human IEQs obtained 6 months after
the transplant were stained for insulin as described in research design and methods. The transplant could not be identified in any of the Adv-LacZ kidneys despite sectioning throughout the entire organ. In
contrast, grafts were large and easily identified in all Adv-CA-Akt kidneys. Representative photomicrographs of sections from
Adv-CA-Akt kidneys are shown displaying positive staining for insulin (A, E, and F), CK-19 (B), glucagon (C), and somatostatin (D). Notice the presence of insulin-positive cells inside of ductal structures in the grafts (arrows in E and F), suggesting β-cell neogenesis. G and H: Kidney sections from mice transplanted with 1,500 Adv-CA-Akt human IEQs obtained 6 months after the transplant were stained
for hemagglutinin (red), insulin (green), and Hoestch 33258 (blue) as described in research design and methods. Arrows indicate hemagglutinin-positive cells. I and J: No hemagglutinin staining was observed in graft sections obtained at 56 days after the transplant of 4,000 uninfected IEQs.