The appearance of β-cell autoimmunity, defined based on autoantibody positivity in at least one sample (A) or positivity in two or more sequential samples (B) over the first 5 years of life in 1,006 children with increased HLA DQB1 conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes identified
from the general population (the Finnish DIPP study, modified from Kukko et al. ). Proportion of children positive for at least one autoantibody (ab) specificity and of those positive for at least two
autoantibodies (abs) out of four analyzed (islet cell antibodies, insulin autoantibodies, and autoantibodies to the 65-kDa
isoform of GAD and the tyrosine phosphatase-related IA-2 antigen) is shown.