IgG class antibodies to bovine insulin (BI) in a group of infants exposed to cow’s milk–based formula before the age of 3
months (formula-fed infants), in another group exclusively breast-fed at least up to the age of 3 months but subsequently
exposed to cow’s milk products (breast-fed infants), and in a small group of infants who seroconverted to positivity for two
or more diabetes-associated autoantibodies before the age of 12 months (modified from Blomquist et al. ). OD, optical density.