Environmental Triggers and Determinants of Type 1 Diabetes

TABLE 1

Features of celiac disease and type 1 diabetes

Characteristic Celiac disease Type 1 diabetes
Genetics HLA DQ2 (>85%) Graphic Account for ∼50% HLA DQ8 Graphic (>90%) Graphic Account for ∼50%
(HLA DQ8) HLA DQ2
Non-HLA genes, account for ∼50% Non-HLA genes, account for ∼50%
Trigger of target cell damage Infection? Infection?
Driving antigen Gluten Dietary?
Autoantibodies Reticulin antibodies, endomysial antibodies, tissue transglutaminase antibodies Insulin autoantibodies, GAD and IA-2 antibodies
Outcome 1 of 15–20 with HLA-conferred susceptibility progresses to clinical disease 1 of 15–20 with HLA-conferred susceptibility progresses to clinical disease

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 54 no. suppl 2 S125-S136