Natural History of Type 1 Diabetes

  1. Peter Achenbach,
  2. Ezio Bonifacio,
  3. Kerstin Koczwara and
  4. Anette-G. Ziegler
  1. From the Diabetes Research Institute, Munich, Germany
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Anette-G. Ziegler, MD, Diabetes Research Institute, Koelner Platz 1, 80804 Munich, Germany. E-mail: anziegler{at}


The natural history of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in children is associated with the appearance of islet autoantibodies early in life, which is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Once islet autoantibodies have developed, the progression to diabetes in antibody-positive individuals is determined by the age of antibody appearance and by the magnitude of the autoimmunity, in turn related to the age of the subject. Characteristics that describe the magnitude of the autoimmunity can stage progression to type 1 diabetes in islet autoantibody–positive subjects regardless of genetic background or age.


    • Accepted April 28, 2005.
    • Received March 2, 2005.
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