The Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Upstream of the Insulin Gene Is a Susceptibility Locus for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults

TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of study subjects

Study (n) Ascertainment criteria Autoantibody positivity* Range of age at onset (years) Age at onset (years) Duration of diabetes (years) BMI (kg/m2) Male sex (%) Insulin requiring by 3 years postdiagnosis (%)
UKPDS (232) Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: not insulin requiring within 3 months of diagnosis, ketonuria <3 mmol/l GADA and/or IA-2A 25–65 46.7 ± 10.6 Studied at diagnosis 25.2 ± 4.9 53 51
W2 Repository (131) Clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: not insulin requiring within 12 months of diagnosis GADA 26–68 47.4 ± 10.0 8.9 ± 6.7 28.6 ± 5.3 57 41
Exeter YT2D (37) Clinical diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: not insulin requiring within 3 months of diagnosis GADA and/or IA-2A 29–45 38.4 ± 5.4 11.9 ± 7.7 27.5 ± 5.8 43 57
Control subjects (332) Spouses/friends of probands collected in the DIF study, normoglycemic Negative for GADA and IA-2A 20–91 55.5 ± 19.8 N/A 25.4 ± 4.0 45 N/A
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Antibody measurements were made in the accredited laboratory of Professor Bingley (University of Bristol) for the UKPDS, Exeter YT2D, and Diabetes in Families (DIF) cohorts and in the laboratory of Professor Bottazzo (Royal London Hospital) for the W2 Repository.

  • At diagnosis;

  • at time of sample collection.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 55 no. 6 1890-1894