Visceral Fat Adipokine Secretion Is Associated With Systemic Inflammation in Obese Humans

  1. Luigi Fontana12,
  2. J. Christopher Eagon1,
  3. Maria E. Trujillo34,
  4. Philipp E. Scherer34 and
  5. Samuel Klein1
  1. 1Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
  2. 2Division of Food Science, Human Nutrition, and Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanitá, Rome, Italy
  3. 3Department of Cell Biology, Diabetes Research and Training Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York
  4. 4Department of Medicine, Diabetes Research and Training Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York
  1. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Samuel Klein, MD, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8031, 660 South Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110. E-mail: sklein{at}im.wustl.edu

Abstract

Although excess visceral fat is associated with noninfectious inflammation, it is not clear whether visceral fat is simply associated with or actually causes metabolic disease in humans. To evaluate the hypothesis that visceral fat promotes systemic inflammation by secreting inflammatory adipokines into the portal circulation that drains visceral fat, we determined adipokine arteriovenous concentration differences across visceral fat, by obtaining portal vein and radial artery blood samples, in 25 extremely obese subjects (mean ± SD BMI 54.7 ± 12.6 kg/m2) during gastric bypass surgery at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri. Mean plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was ∼50% greater in the portal vein than in the radial artery in obese subjects (P = 0.007). Portal vein IL-6 concentration correlated directly with systemic C-reactive protein concentrations (r = 0.544, P = 0.005). Mean plasma leptin concentration was ∼20% lower in the portal vein than in the radial artery in obese subjects (P = 0.0002). Plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, resistin, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, and adiponectin concentrations were similar in the portal vein and radial artery in obese subjects. These data suggest that visceral fat is an important site for IL-6 secretion and provide a potential mechanistic link between visceral fat and systemic inflammation in people with abdominal obesity.

Footnotes

  • Published ahead of print at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org on 2 February 2007.

    The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

    • Accepted January 14, 2007.
    • Received November 27, 2006.
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  1. Diabetes vol. 56 no. 4 1010-1013
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