Metabolic Endotoxemia Initiates Obesity and Insulin Resistance

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FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Chronic experimental metabolic endotoxemia induces obesity and diabetes. A: Plasma endotoxin concentration (EU/ml) in WT mice infused with saline (CT; n = 18) or LPS (n = 18) for 4 weeks using subcutaneous osmotic pumps and compared with mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks (HF; n = 18). B: Plasma glucose (mmol/l) following an oral glucose load (3 g/kg) in control (CT; n = 24), LPS (n = 13), or high-fat diet (HF; n = 24) mice. The inset represents the area under curve for each group. *P < 0.05 vs. CT; §LPS vs. CT; #HF vs. LPS. C: Plasma insulin (pmol/l) concentrations 30 min before (−30) and 15 min after (15) an oral glucose load in control (CT; n = 24), LPS (n = 13), or high-fat diet–fed (HF; n = 24) mice. D: Hepatic glucose production and whole-body glucose turnover rates (mg · kg−1 · min−1) in control (CT; n = 5), LPS (n = 5), or high-fat diet–fed (HF; n = 5) mice. E: Body weight (g) before (day 0) and after a 28-day treatment period (day 28) and body weight gain (Δ) in control (CT; n = 26), LPS (n = 21), or high-fat diet–fed (HF; n = 34) mice. F: Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue weight (percentage of body weight) in control (CT; n = 26), LPS (n = 21), or high-fat diet–fed (HF; n = 34) mice. G: Liver weight (percentage of body weight) in control (CT; n = 26), LPS (n = 21), or high-fat diet–fed (HF; n = 34) mice. H: Liver triglycerides (μmol/liver) in control (CT; n = 12), LPS (n = 9), or high-fat diet–fed (HF; n = 11) mice. I: Mean energy intake (kcal · day−1 · mouse−1) in control (CT; n = 18), LPS (n = 18), or high-fat diet–fed (HF; n = 18) mice. Data are means ± SE. Data with different superscript letters are significantly different at P < 0.05, according to the post hoc ANOVA statistical analysis.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 56 no. 7 1761-1772