Awakening and Counterregulatory Response to Hypoglycemia During Early and Late Sleep

TABLE 2

Serum or plasma concentrations of counterregulatory hormones before and at the end of the hypoglycemic intervals and during the corresponding time interval of the control night in which no hypoglycemia was induced

First half of night
Second half of night
P
Hypoglycemia Control Hypoglycemia Control Early/late Hypogylcemia Early/late* hypoglycemia
Epinephrine (pmol/l)
    Before 60 ± 5 59 ± 3 62 ± 5 58 ± 2
    End 3,138 ± 928 59 ± 3 1,348 ± 378* 61 ± 4
    Δ +3,078 ± 927 −1 ± 2 +1,286 ± 378 +3 ± 3 0.048 0.002 0.048
Norepinephrine (nmol/l)
    Before 0.96 ± 0.10 0.98 ± 0.13 0.71 ± 0.07 0.84 ± 0.08
    End 1.67 ± 0.20 0.82 ± 0.11 1.17 ± 0.12* 0.78 ± 0.09
    Δ +0.71 ± 0.20 −0.16 ± 0.04 +0.46 ± 0.10 −0.06 ± 0.02 0.364 <0.001 0.162
ACTH (pmol/l)
    Before 1.9 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.3 3.3 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 0.2
    End 16.0 ± 5.0 1.4 ± 0.3 8.8 ± 2.1 3.1 ± 0.6
    Δ +14.1 ± 4.9 −0.3 ± 0.1 +5.5 ± 1.9 +1.4 ± 0.6 0.172 0.004 0.045
Cortisol (nmol/l)
    Before 149 ± 28 120 ± 30 164 ± 26 113 ± 26
    End 320 ± 58 92 ± 27 300 ± 44 246 ± 49
    Δ +171 ± 73 −28 ± 7 +136 ± 40 +133 ± 36* 0.096 0.075 0.025
Growth hormone (μg/l)
    Before 2.6 ± 0.6 3.1 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 1.1 3.8 ± 1.2
    End 8.8 ± 2.3 5.1 ± 1.3 2.7 ± 0.9* 1.7 ± 0.6
    Δ +6.2 ± 2.2 +2.0 ± 1.6 −0.2 ± 1.1 −2.1 ± 1.0 0.017 0.010 0.205
Glucagon (ng/l)
    Before 159 ± 14 139 ± 14 117 ± 11 105 ± 9
    End 145 ± 11 128 ± 11 123 ± 9 103 ± 9
    Δ −14 ± 7 −11 ± 5 +6 ± 7 +2 ± 4 0.084 0.269 0.839
  • Data are means ± SE. P values were derived from ANOVA of Δ values (valueend − valuebefore) including the repeated-measures factors “early/late” for part of the night (early vs. late) and “hypo” for hypoglycemic vs. control night. Early/late* hypoglycemia denotes the interaction term of both factors. In addition, for pairwise comparisons, Student's t test was used, with significant results indicated as follows:

  • *

    * P < 0.005 and

  • P < 0.05 for comparison with respective values of the early night;

  • P < 0.01 for comparison with the values of the early night control condition.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 56 no. 7 1938-1942