Persistence of Pre-Diabetes in Overweight and Obese Hispanic Children

Association With Progressive Insulin Resistance, Poor β-Cell Function, and Increasing Visceral Fat

  1. Michael I. Goran,
  2. Christianne Lane,
  3. Claudia Toledo-Corral and
  4. Marc J. Weigensberg
  1. From the Departments of Preventive Medicine, Physiology, Biophysics, and Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California
  1. Corresponding author: Michael I. Goran, goran{at}


OBJECTIVE—To examine changes in risk factors in overweight and obese Hispanic children at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We recruited 128 overweight/obese Hispanic children with a family history of type 2 diabetes primarily from clinics in East Los Angeles. Children were evaluated annually for 4 years with an oral glucose tolerance test, applying American Diabetes Association criteria to define diabetes and pre-diabetes. Insulin sensitivity (Si), acute insulin response (AIR) to glucose, and β-cell function (BCF) were determined from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests, and total body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT and SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging were assessed in years 1, 2, and 4.

RESULTS—No subjects developed type 2 diabetes, 40% never had pre-diabetes, 47% had intermittent pre-diabetes with no clear pattern over time, and 13% had persistent pre-diabetes. At baseline, those with persistent pre-diabetes had lower BCF and higher IAAT. In repeated measures, Si deteriorated regardless of pre-diabetes, and there was a significant effect of pre-diabetes on AIR (42% lower in pre-diabetes; P = 0.01) and disposition index (34% lower in pre-diabetes; P = 0.021) and a significant interaction of pre-diabetes and time on IAAT (greater increase over time in those with pre-diabetes; P = 0.034).

CONCLUSIONS—In this group of Hispanic children at high risk of type 2 diabetes, 1) pre-diabetes is highly variable from year to year; 2) the prevalence of persistent pre-diabetes over 3 years is 13%; and 3) children with persistent pre-diabetes have lower BCF, due to a lower AIR, and increasing visceral fat over time.


  • Published ahead of print at on 4 August 2008.

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    • Accepted July 21, 2008.
    • Received April 1, 2008.
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  1. Diabetes vol. 57 no. 11 3007-3012
  1. All Versions of this Article:
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