Antibiotic treatment reduced the occurrence of visceral adipose tissue inflammation, oxidative stress, and macrophage infiltration
markers in high-fat diet–fed mice. Inflammation: PAI-1, IL-1, and TNF-α mRNA concentrations (A, D, and G); oxidative stress: STAMP-2 and NADPHox mRNA concentrations (B and E); macrophage infiltration markers: MCP-1 and F4/80 mRNA concentrations (C and F), visceral adipose tissue oxidative stress levels (lipid peroxides concentrations) (H) in mice fed normal diet (CT), normal diet and antibiotics (CT-Ab), high-fat diet (HF), or high-fat diet and antibiotics
(HF-Ab) for 4 weeks. Data are means ± SE. Data with different superscript letters are significantly different (P < 0.05) according to the post hoc ANOVA statistical analysis.