Antibiotic treatment of ob/ob mice reduced endotoxemia. ob/ob mice treated with antibiotic and ob/ob CD14−/− mice exhibited lower mRNA concentration of adipose tissue inflammatory markers and improved metabolic parameters. A: DGGE profiles generated from the cecal microbiota in ob/ob mice (Ob) or ob/ob mice treated with antibiotic (Ob-Ab) for 4 weeks. Each number and profile correspond to a different animal. B: Plasma endotoxin (LPS) concentration (EU/ml). C: Plasma glucose (mmol/l) after an oral glucose load (1 g/kg) in ob/ob mice (Ob), ob/ob mice treated with antibiotics (Ob-Ab) for 4 weeks, or ob/ob 14−/− mice. The inset represents the area under curve (AUC) of the same groups. D: Plasma insulin concentration (pmol/l) 30 min before (−30) and 15 min after (15) oral glucose administration of the same groups. E: Glucose-induced insulin secretion after oral glucose administration. F: Insulin resistance index. G: Body weight gain. J: Subcutaneous adipose tissue weight (percent body weight). K: Visceral adipose tissue weight (percent body weight). H and L: Visceral adipose tissue PAI-1 and F4/80 mRNA concentrations. I and M: Subcutaneous adipose tissue PAI-1 and F4/80 mRNA concentrations in ob/ob mice (Ob), ob/ob mice treated with antibiotics (Ob-Ab) for 4 weeks, or ob/ob 14−/− mice. N: Visceral adipose tissue oxidative stress levels (lipid peroxides concentrations) in the same groups. Data are means ± SE.
Data with different superscript letters are significantly different (P < 0.05) according to the post hoc ANOVA statistical analysis.