Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes: the triumvirate. Insulin resistance in muscle and liver and impaired insulin secretion represent the core defects in type 2 diabetes (1). See text for a more detailed explanation.
Natural history of type 2 diabetes. The plasma insulin response (○) depicts the classic Starling's curve of the pancreas (1). See text for a more detailed explanation. ●, insulin-mediated glucose uptake (top panel).
Insulin secretion/insulin resistance (disposition) index (ΔI/ΔG ÷ IR) in individuals with NGT, IGT, and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a function of the 2-h plasma glucose (PG) concentration in lean and obese subjects (39–42).
Effect of physiological elevation (48 h) in the plasma FFA concentration (brought about by lipid infusion) on plasma C-peptide concentration (left) and insulin secretory response (deconvolution of the palsma C-peptide curve) (right) in offspring of two type 2 diabetic parents (24).
SGLT 2 transporter mRNA (left) and protein (middle) and glucose transport (α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside) (right) are increased in cultured renal proximal tubular epithelial cells of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) versus nondiabetic subjects (CON) (232).
The effect of sulfonylurea (glibenclamide = glyburide) and metformin therapy on the plasma A1C concentration in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects. Conventionally treated diabetic subjects received diet plus exercise therapy (36,279).
Summary of studies examining the effect of sulfonylurea (SU) treatment versus placebo or versus active-comparator on A1C in type 2 diabetic subjects (36,166,167,260,269–273,279–285). See text for a more detailed discussion. GLY, glyburide.
Summary of studies examining the effect of TZDs versus placebo or versus active-comparator on A1C in type 2 diabetic subjects (167,168,260,268–273). See text for a more detailed discussion. PIO, pioglitazone; ROSI, rosiglitazone.
ADA consensus statement algorithm on the treatment of type 2 diabetes. As indicated, this does not represent the official statement of ADA (49). See text for a detailed discussion (309). Exen, exenatide; PIO, pioglitazone; SU, sulfonylurea.