Survey of the Human Pancreatic β-Cell G1/S Proteome Reveals a Potential Therapeutic Role for Cdk-6 and Cyclin D1 in Enhancing Human β-Cell Replication and Function In Vivo

  1. Nathalie Fiaschi-Taesch,
  2. Todd A. Bigatel,
  3. Brian Sicari,
  4. Karen K. Takane,
  5. Fatima Salim,
  6. Silvia Velazquez-Garcia,
  7. George Harb,
  8. Karen Selk,
  9. Irene Cozar-Castellano and
  10. Andrew F. Stewart
  1. Division of Endocrinology, The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
  1. Corresponding author: Nathalie M. Fiaschi-Taesch, taeschn{at}dom.pitt.edu.
  1. N.F.-T. and T.A.B. contributed equally to this article.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES To comprehensively inventory the proteins that control the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint in the human islet and compare them with those in the murine islet, to determine whether these might therapeutically enhance human β-cell replication, to determine whether human β-cell replication can be demonstrated in an in vivo model, and to enhance human β-cell function in vivo.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-four G1/S regulatory proteins were examined in human islets. Effects of adenoviruses expressing cdk-6, cdk-4, and cyclin D1 on proliferation in human β-cells were studied in both invitro and in vivo models.

RESULTS Multiple differences between murine and human islets occur, most strikingly the presence of cdk-6 in human β-cells versus its low abundance in the murine islet. Cdk-6 and cyclin D1 in vitro led to marked activation of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation and cell cycle progression with no induction of cell death. Human islets transduced with cdk-6 and cyclin D1 were transplanted into diabetic NOD-SCID mice and markedly outperformed native human islets in vivo, maintaining glucose control for the entire 6 weeks of the study.

CONCLUSIONS The human G1/S proteome is described for the first time. Human islets are unlike their rodent counterparts in that they contain easily measurable cdk-6. Cdk-6 overexpression, alone or in combination with cyclin D1, strikingly stimulates human β-cell replication, both in vitro as well as in vivo, without inducing cell death or loss of function. Using this model, human β-cell replication can be induced and studied in vivo.

Footnotes

  • The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

    • Received May 12, 2008.
    • Accepted December 23, 2008.
  • Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

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