C-Reactive Protein and 5-Year Survival in Type 2 Diabetes

The Casale Monferrato Study

  1. Graziella Bruno1,
  2. Paolo Fornengo1,
  3. Giulia Novelli1,
  4. Francesco Panero1,
  5. Massimo Perotto1,
  6. Olivia Segre1,
  7. Chiara Zucco1,
  8. PierCarlo Deambrogio2,
  9. Giuseppe Bargero2 and
  10. Paolo Cavallo Perin1
  1. 1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Torino, Torino, Italy; and
  2. 2Santo Spirito Hospital, Casale Monferrato, Alessandria, Italy.
  1. Corresponding author: Graziella Bruno, graziella.bruno{at}


OBJECTIVE To determine to what extent plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) values influence 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic individuals, independently of albumin excretion rate (AER) and other cardiovascular risk factors, and its incremental usefulness for predicting individual risk of mortality.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Measurements of CRP were performed in 2,381 of 3,249 (73.3%) subjects as part of the population-based Casale Monferrato Study. Its association with 5-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was assessed with multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. The C statistic and measures of calibration and global fit were also assessed.

RESULTS Results are based on 496 deaths in 11.717 person-years of observations (median follow-up 5.4 years). With respect to subjects with CRP ≤3 mg/l, those with higher values had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.51 (95% CI 1.18–1.92) for all-cause mortality and 1.44 (0.99–2.08) for cardiovascular mortality. In normoalbuminuric subjects, respective HRs of CRP were 1.56 (1.13–2.15) and 1.65 (1.00–2.74), AER being neither a modifier nor a confounder of CRP association. In analysis limited to diabetic subjects without cardiovascular disease (CVD), adjusted HRs were 1.67 (1.24–2.24) for all-cause mortality and 1.36 (0.83–2.24) for cardiovascular mortality. The improvement in individual risk assessment was marginal when measured with various statistical measures of model discrimination, calibration, and global fit.

CONCLUSIONS CRP measurement is independently associated with short-term mortality risk in type 2 diabetic individuals, even in normoalbuminuric subjects and in those without a previous diagnosis of CVD. Its clinical usefulness in individual assessment of 5-year risk of mortality, however, is limited.


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  • See accompanying original article, p. 798.

    • Received July 5, 2008.
    • Accepted December 10, 2008.
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  1. Diabetes vol. 58 no. 4 926-933
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