Leucine Deprivation Decreases Fat Mass by Stimulation of Lipolysis in White Adipose Tissue and Upregulation of Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) in Brown Adipose Tissue

  1. Ying Cheng,
  2. Qingshu Meng,
  3. Chunxia Wang,
  4. Houkai Li,
  5. Zhiying Huang,
  6. Shanghai Chen,
  7. Fei Xiao and
  8. Feifan Guo
  1. From the Key Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
  1. Corresponding author: Feifan Guo, ffguo{at}sibs.ac.cn.
  1. Y.C. and Q.M. contributed equally to this study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) play distinct roles in adaptation to changes in nutrient availability, with WAT serving as an energy store and BAT regulating thermogenesis. We previously showed that mice maintained on a leucine-deficient diet unexpectedly experienced a dramatic reduction in abdominal fat mass. The cellular mechanisms responsible for this loss, however, are unclear. The goal of current study is to investigate possible mechanisms.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either control, leucine-deficient, or pair-fed diets for 7 days. Changes in metabolic parameters and expression of genes and proteins related to lipid metabolism were analyzed in WAT and BAT.

RESULTS We found that leucine deprivation for 7 days increases oxygen consumption, suggesting increased energy expenditure. We also observed increases in lipolysis and expression of β-oxidation genes and decreases in expression of lipogenic genes and activity of fatty acid synthase in WAT, consistent with increased use and decreased synthesis of fatty acids, respectively. Furthermore, we observed that leucine deprivation increases expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in BAT, suggesting increased thermogenesis.

CONCLUSIONS We show for the first time that elimination of dietary leucine produces significant metabolic changes in WAT and BAT. The effect of leucine deprivation on UCP1 expression is a novel and unexpected observation and suggests that the observed increase in energy expenditure may reflect an increase in thermogenesis in BAT. Further investigation will be required to determine the relative contribution of UCP1 upregulation and thermogenesis in BAT to leucine deprivation-stimulated fat loss.

Footnotes

  • The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

    • Received June 14, 2009.
    • Accepted September 23, 2009.
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  1. Diabetes vol. 59 no. 1 17-25
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