Accelerated Progression From Mild Cognitive Impairment to Dementia in People With Diabetes

  1. Laura Fratiglioni1,4
  1. 1Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden;
  2. 2Department of Epidemiology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China;
  3. 3KI-Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden;
  4. 4Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
  1. Corresponding author: Weili Xu, weili.xu{at}ki.se.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE The effect of diabetes on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and its conversion to dementia remains controversial. We sought to examine whether diabetes and pre-diabetes are associated with MCI and accelerate the progression from MCI to dementia.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the Kungsholmen Project, 963 cognitively intact participants and 302 subjects with MCI (120 with amnestic MCI [aMCI ] and 182 with other cognitive impairment no dementia [oCIND]) age ≥75 years were identified at baseline. The two cohorts were followed for 9 years to detect the incident MCI and dementia following international criteria. Diabetes was ascertained based on a medical examination, hypoglycemic medication use, and random blood glucose level ≥11.0 mmol/l. Pre-diabetes was defined as random blood glucose level of 7.8–11.0 mmol/l in diabetes-free participants. Data were analyzed using standard and time-dependent Cox proportional-hazards models.

RESULTS During the follow-up period, in the cognitively intact cohort, 182 people developed MCI (42 aMCI and 140 oCIND), and 212 developed dementia. In the MCI cohort, 155 subjects progressed to dementia, the multi-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) of dementia was 2.87 (1.30–6.34) for diabetes, and 4.96 (2.27–10.84) for pre-diabetes. In a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, diabetes and pre-diabetes accelerated the progression from MCI to dementia by 3.18 years. Diabetes and pre-diabetes were neither cross-sectionally nor longitudinally associated with MCI.

CONCLUSIONS Diabetes and pre-diabetes substantially accelerate the progression from MCI to dementia, and anticipate dementia occurrence by more than 3 years in people with MCI. The association of diabetes with the development of MCI is less evident in old people.

Footnotes

  • The costs of publication of this article were defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. This article must therefore be hereby marked “advertisement” in accordance with 18 U.S.C. Section 1734 solely to indicate this fact.

  • Received April 29, 2010.
  • Accepted August 5, 2010.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.

| Table of Contents

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 59 no. 11 2928-2935
  1. All Versions of this Article:
    1. db10-0539v1
    2. 59/11/2928 most recent