Experimental protocol. Arterial and venous catheters were implanted into 9-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. After 1 week of recovery,
animals were either given an insulin injection daily for 3 consecutive days to induce moderate hypoglycemia (25–40 mg/dl)
or they were given saline injections as a control. On the fourth day, rats underwent a severe hypoglycemic (10–15 mg/dl) hyperinsulinemic
(0.2 units · kg−1 · min−1) clamp for either 60 or 90 min or, alternatively, underwent a 90-min euglycemic (∼80 mg/dl) hyperinsulinemic (0.2 units ·
kg−1 · min−1) clamp. Animals were either killed 1 week later to assess neuronal damage by H-E and Fluoro-Jade B staining or underwent
sensorimotor and cognitive testing 6–8 weeks following the clamp.