Coffee and Caffeine Consumption in Relation to Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Postmenopausal Women

TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics between participants with incident cases of type 2 diabetes and control participants among 718 women

Case subjects Control subjects P*
n 359 359
Age (years) 60.3 ± 6.1 60.3 ± 6.1
Caucasian (%) 93.5 93.5
BMI (kg/m2) 30.9 ± 6.1 26.0 ± 5.0 <0.001
Alcohol (g/day) 2.62 ± 7.4 4.19 ± 8.3 0.008
Current smoking (%) 14.5 13.7 0.74
Physical activity ≥once/week (%) 30.7 38.7 0.02
Family history of diabetes (%) 48.5 24.0 <0.001
Past postmenopausal hormone use (%) 34.0 29.3 0.17
Ever oral contraceptive use (%) 50.4 48.0 0.57
Age at menopause (years) 48.0 ± 6.2 48.0 ± 5.8 0.79
Years since menopause 12.2 ± 8.2 12.2 ± 8.0 0.77
Age at menarche <12 (%) 25.4 21.7 0.23
Age at first pregnancy of ≥6 months, <25 (%) 63.4 57.2 0.37
Pregnancies ≥5 (%) 18.7 19.9 0.69
Currently married (%) 65.7 68.2 0.28
Caffeine-related beverages
    Caffeinated coffee, ≥4 cups/day (%) 13.8 20.9 0.01
    Decaffeinated coffee, ≥4 cups/day (%) 2.3 4.3 0.20
    Tea, ≥4 cups/day (%) 5.2 2.9 0.13
    Caffeine, ≥500 mg/day (%) 14.3 21.1 0.02
Sex hormones
    SHBG (nmol/l) 22.3 ± 13.8 36.9 ± 17.4 <0.001
    Estradiol (pg/ml) 24.6 ± 15.9 20.5 ± 11.3 <0.001
    Testosterone (ng/dl) 29.8 ± 19.1 28.9 ± 19.1 0.49
    DHEAS (μg/dl) 91.0 ± 61.3 92.6 ± 53.7 0.67
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *Baseline characteristics were compared between case patients and control subjects using the paired t test for continuous variables and the McNemar test for categorical variables.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 60 no. 1 269-275