Coffee and Caffeine Consumption in Relation to Sex Hormone–Binding Globulin and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Postmenopausal Women

TABLE 3

Geometric mean levels of total estradiol, total testosterone, and DHEAS according to caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption

0 cups/day ≤1 cups/day 2–3 cups/day ≥4 cups/day P for trend
Caffeinated coffee, median (n) 0 (185) 1.0 (187) 2.5 (212) 4.5 (122)
    Total estradiol (pg/ml) 23.6 (17.9–31.1) 21.2 (16.1–28.1) 23.9 (18.0–31.6) 22.0 (16.5–29.2) 0.76
    Total testosterone (ng/dl) 20.7 (13.4–32.0) 21.5 (13.8–33.3) 22.8 (14.6–35.4) 22.3 (14.3–35.0) 0.23
    DHEAS (μg/dl) 87.8 (57.6–133.7) 89.0 (58.2–136.1) 94.4 (61.6–144.6) 93.3 (60.4–144.0) 0.28
Decaffeinated coffee, median (n) 0 (401) 0.4 (188) 2.5 (84) 4.5 (23)
    Total estradiol (pg/ml) 23.0 (17.4–30.5) 21.6 (16.2–28.8) 22.7 (16.8–30.8) 21.8 (15.7–30.3) 0.67
    Total testosterone (ng/dl) 21.0 (13.6–32.4) 18.7 (11.9–29.2) 19.7 (12.3–31.6) 19.9 (11.9–33.3) 0.55
    DHEAS (μg/dl) 86.3 (56.5–131.8) 83.1 (53.8–128.5) 84.5 (53.5–133.6) 88.5 (53.7–145.6) 0.99
Tea, median (n) 0 (242) 0.4 (351) 2.5 (76) 4.5 (28)
    Total estradiol (pg/ml) 22.9 (17.3–30.2) 23.5 (17.8–31.1) 24.6 (18.5–32.7) 22.4 (16.3–30.8) 0.60
    Total testosterone (ng/dl) 21.7 (14.1–33.6) 23.0 (14.8–35.6) 21.9 (14.0–34.3) 19.7 (11.9–32.4) 0.49
    DHEAS (μg/dl) 87.8 (57.7–133.5) 94.9 (62.2–144.8) 88.2 (57.2–136.1) 78.1 (48.3–126.2) 0.36
Caffeine category (mg/day) <50 50–249 250–499 ≥500
Caffeine intake, median (mg/day) (n) 13 (131) 140 (209) 366 (230) 656 (123)
    Total estradiol (pg/ml) 23.0 (17.4–30.4) 22.4 (16.9–29.5) 24.2 (18.3–32.0) 22.4 (16.9–29.8) 0.79
    Total testosterone (ng/dl) 19.4 (12.5–30.0) 21.9 (14.2–33.8) 22.1 (14.2–34.2) 22.1 (14.2–34.5) 0.21
    DHEAS (μg/dl) 84.2 (55.1–128.7) 90.2 (59.1–137.6) 92.3 (60.3–141.3) 90.5 (58.7–139.5) 0.42
  • Data are geometric means (95% CI).

  • *P for trend are based on median values in categories of the participants. All models were adjusted for matching factors (age, race, duration of follow-up, and time of blood draw), smoking status, physical activity, alcohol use, total calories, and BMI.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 60 no. 1 269-275