Changes in Alcohol Consumption and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men

TABLE 1

Characteristics according to 4-year change in alcohol consumption in 1990 stratified by initial intake in 1986 (n = 33,073)*

Initial alcohol consumption (g/day) Change in alcohol consumption 4 years later (g/day)
Moderate to large decrease (≥7.5) Small to moderate decrease (2.5–7.49) No change/ relatively stable (±2.49) Small to moderate increase (2.5–7.49) Moderate to large increase (≥7.5)
Number drinks/day (0)
    Number (% of total) of participants 6,868 (20.8%) 309 (0.9%) 170 (0.5%)
    Age (years) 57.8 56.7 59.4
    BMI (kg/m2) 25.6 25.5 25.7
    Weight gain from 1986 to 1990 (lb) 1.2 1.6 3.0
    Alcohol consumption in 1986 (g/day) 0.0 0.0 0.0
    Alcohol consumption in 1990 (g/day) 0.2 4.1 21.5
    Physical activity (METs/week) 35.8 36.1 38.0
    Current smoker (%) 3.4 3.7 5.0
    Family history of diabetes (%) 15.9 14.3 11.2
    Cardiovascular disease (%) 11.4 13.9 12.9
    Hypertension (%) 25.6 26.3 25.3
    Hypercholesterolemia (%) 28.4 35.9 29.2
<1 drink/day (0.1–14.9)
    Number (% of total) of participants 791 (2.4%) 3,517 (10.6%) 9,321 (28.2%) 2,391 (7.2%) 1,190 (3.6%)
    Age (years) 58.9 57.3 57.1 56.7 57.6
    BMI (kg/m2) 25.5 25.5 25.5 25.4 25.7
    Weight gain from 1986 to 1990 (lb) −0.2 1.0 1.3 1.6 1.7
    Alcohol consumption in 1986 (g/day) 12.1 8.3 4.9 6.7 8.0
    Alcohol consumption in 1990 (g/day) 2.3 3.9 4.7 11.2 24.5
    Physical activity (METs/week) 37.8 38.6 36.1 40.3 38.4
    Current smoker (%) 5.6 3.5 4.0 4.4 5.4
    Family history of diabetes (%) 14.9 15.6 16.1 15.3 14.5
    Cardiovascular disease (%) 10.9 11.6 11.3 10.9 10.1
    Hypertension (%) 27.0 24.0 23.6 24.2 27.0
    Hypercholesterolemia (%) 32.3 30.9 30.7 31.2 33.2
≥1 drink/day (≥15.0 g/day)
    Number (% of total) of participants 3,256 (9.8) 1,498 (4.5) 2,118 (6.4) 665 (2.0) 979 (3.0)
    Age (years) 58.7 57.7 58.8 57.7 58.4
    BMI (kg/m2) 25.7 25.4 25.4 25.2 25.6
    Weight gain from 1986 to 1990 (lb) 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.9
    Alcohol consumption in 1986 (g/day) 37.9 26.0 30.2 27.7 28.5
    Alcohol consumption in 1990 (g/day) 16.4 21.2 30.1 32.2 49.2
    Physical activity (METs/week) 39.5 40.2 38.1 39.8 39.7
    Current smoker (%) 7.5 5.5 8.6 5.4 9.4
    Family history of diabetes (%) 13.4 15.4 13.7 12.2 13.5
    Cardiovascular disease (%) 11.4 10.9 10.3 9.5 8.8
    Hypertension (%) 31.0 26.5 27.8 24.2 33.8
    Hypercholesterolemia (%) 32.4 32.2 31.4 28.2 33.1
  • *Data are given as mean for continuous variables, except alcohol consumption (median) and percentage for categorical variables and are age-adjusted, except for age. BMI was calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. MET, metabolic equivalent. Dash indicates data not available.

  • †History of diabetes with onset at age ≥30 years in immediate family.

  • ‡Cardiovascular disease comprises stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery, and angina pectoris.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 60 no. 1 74-79