Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Macrophage Infiltration Is Associated With Hepatic and Visceral Fat Deposition, Hyperinsulinemia, and Stimulation of NF-κB Stress Pathway

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FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

In individuals with high macrophage aggregation around dead adipocytes as CLS, activation stimuli such as IL-1, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), and TNF-α bind to their appropriate membrane receptors. Transduction of signal from receptors activates the NF-κB pathway, which results in transcription of several secreted molecules and downregulates insulin signaling. In adipocytes, MCP-1 recruits macrophages and MMP9 stimulates adipocyte enlargement, whereas secreted ILs and TNF-α further activate inflammatory cascades and participate to insulin resistance development. TLR, Toll-like receptor; TNFR, TNF receptor.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 60 no. 11 2802-2809