Specific Glucose-Induced Control of Insulin Receptor Substrate-2 Expression Is Mediated via Ca2+-Dependent Calcineurin/NFAT Signaling in Primary Pancreatic Islet β-Cells
- 1Kovler Diabetes Center, Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
- 2Theriac Pharmaceutical Corporation, Seattle, Washington
- Corresponding author: Christopher J. Rhodes, .
OBJECTIVE Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) plays an essential role in pancreatic islet β-cells by promoting growth and survival. IRS-2 turnover is rapid in primary β-cells, but its expression is highly regulated at the transcriptional level, especially by glucose. The aim was to investigate the molecular mechanism on how glucose regulates IRS-2 gene expression in β-cells.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Rat islets were exposed to inhibitors or subjected to adenoviral vector–mediated gene manipulations and then to glucose-induced IRS-2 expression analyzed by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) interaction with IRS-2 promoter was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and glucose-induced NFAT translocation by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS Glucose-induced IRS-2 expression occurred in pancreatic islet β-cells in vivo but not in liver. Modulating rat islet β-cell Ca2+ influx with nifedipine or depolarization demonstrated that glucose-induced IRS-2 gene expression was dependent on a rise in intracellular calcium concentration derived from extracellular sources. Calcineurin inhibitors (FK506, cyclosporin A, and a peptide calcineurin inhibitor [CAIN]) abolished glucose-induced IRS-2 mRNA and protein levels, whereas expression of a constitutively active calcineurin increased them. Specific inhibition of NFAT with the peptide inhibitor VIVIT prevented a glucose-induced IRS-2 transcription. NFATc1 translocation to the nucleus in response to glucose and association of NFATc1 to conserved NFAT binding sites in the IRS-2 promoter were demonstrated.
CONCLUSIONS The mechanism behind glucose-induced transcriptional control of IRS-2 gene expression specific to the islet β-cell is mediated by the Ca2+/calcineurin/NFAT pathway. This insight into the IRS-2 regulation could provide novel therapeutic means in type 2 diabetes to maintain an adequate functional mass.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/db11-0341/-/DC1.
See accompanying original article, p. 2883.
- Received March 14, 2011.
- Accepted August 19, 2011.
- © 2011 by the American Diabetes Association.
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