Decreased IRS2 and TIMP3 Expression in Monocytes From Offspring of Type 2 Diabetic Patients Is Correlated With Insulin Resistance and Increased Intima-Media Thickness

TABLE 1

Distribution of anthropometric and biochemical parameters and monocyte gene expression data according to tertiles of insulin resistance

All subjects Insulin resistance P value
Low Medium High
Subjects (n) 41 13 14 14
Sex (men/women) 13/28
Age (years) 36.5 ± 10.2 32.7 ± 10.9 35.1 ± 8.8 41.6 ± 9.5 NS
BMI (kg/m2) 25.00 ± 4.3 22.1 ± 2.4 25.00 ± 3.4 27.2 ± 3.4 0.001
Waist (cm) 81.9 ± 11.9 73.3 ± 5.0 83.9 ± 11.0 93.0 ± 11.4 0.001
Hypertension (yes/no) 6/35
NGT/IGT 35/6
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 119.4 ± 13.3 115.9 ± 11.1 120.0 ± 15.5 120.0 ± 19.1 NS
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.3 ± 8.4 75.4 ± 8.2 81.2 ± 8.0 78.6 ± 9.4 NS
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.92 ± 1.07 4.54 ± 1.02 4.86 ± 0.98 5.32 ± 1.12 NS
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.52 ± 0.40 1.79 ± 0.47 1.50 ± 0.34 1.30 ± 0.24 0.005
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.08 ± 1.08 2.57 ± 0.80 2.91 ± 1.01 3.72 ± 1.12 0.01
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.18 ± 0.77 0.77 ± 0.27 1.07 ± 0.97 1.66 ± 5.09 0.005
HbA1c (%) 5.32 ± 0.27 5.23 ± 0.2 5.34 ± 0.28 5.49 ± 0.28 0.05
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 5.0 ± 0.4 5.0 ± 0.3 4.8 ± 0.4 5.1 ± 0.4 NS
2 h p-l plasma glucose (mmol/L) 6.6 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 0.9 6.9 ± 1.9 7.0 ± 1.4 0.01
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/L) 60 ± 35 44 ± 22 47 ± 22 89 ± 39 0.001
2 h p-l plasma insulin (pmol/L) 325 ± 248 212 ± 22 267 ± 104 510 ± 392 0.007
HOMA IR index 2.27 ± 1.42 1.65 ± 0.88 1.66 ± 0.73 3.46 ± 1.62 0.0001
Glucose disposal index (mg ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) 7.88 ± 2.37 10.60 ± 1.41 7.875 ± 0.54 5.49 ± 1.27 0.0001
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 304.23 ± 81.29 305.92 ± 110.41 311.58 ± 68.01 299.11 ± 70.47 NS
C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 4.18 ± 9.14 6.8 ± 14.26 2.34 ± 3.15 2.7 ± 2.29 NS
Free fatty acids (mmol/L) 0.47 ± 0.21 0.46 ± 0.17 0.38 ± 0.22 0.58 ± 0.13 NS
sVCAM-1 (ng/mL) 246.01 ± 337.75 145.21 ± 163.53 267.87 ± 225.82 324.93 ± 518.41 NS
sICAM-1 (ng/mL) 166.43 ± 51.97 181.25 ± 66.77 152.76 ± 30.79 164.24 ± 51.31 NS
sTNF R1 (ng/mL) 1.27 ± 0.30 1.28 ± 0.33 1.26 ± 0.13 1.28 ± 0.4 NS
sIL6 R (ng/mL) 26.98 ± 9.27 25.01 ± 8.82 25.57 ± 10.61 30.70 ± 7.86 NS
Soluble chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (ng/mL) 4.11 ± 0.88 4.25 ± 1.05 4.01 ± 0.59 4.08 ± 0.93 NS
Fractalkine (ng/mL) 3.63 ± 8.98 4.94 ± 11.62 5.21 ± 10.38 0.73 ± 1.32 NS
IMT (mm) 0.70 ± 0.09 0.66 ± 0.09 0.67 ± 0.06 0.77 ± 0.11 0.008
FMD 12.43 ± 6.84 11.22 ± 5.25 13.08 ± 8.99 12.86 ± 6.71 NS
Log IR 0.57 ± 0.41 0.71 ± 0.29 0.49 ± 0.46 0.51 ± 0.44 NS
Log IRS1 0.22 ± 0.72 0.36 ± 0.47 0.14 ± 0.94 0.17 ± 0.91 NS
Log IRS2 0.09 ± 0.29 0.20 ± 0.28 0.09 ± 0.31 0.02 ± 0.30 0.05
Log TIMP3 −0.12 ± 0.63 0.14 ± 0.55 −0.22 ± 0.70 −0.26 ± 0.64 0.05
Log TACE −0.11 ± 0.25 −0.06 ± 0.25 −0.17 ± 0.26 −0.10 ± 0.25 NS
Log ADAM10 0.48 ± 0.35 0.64 ± 0.32 0.33 ± 0.32 0.56 ± 0.29 NS
Log MMP9 −0.07 ± 0.30 −0.07 ± 0.30 −0.15 ± 0.26 −0.08 ± 0.27 NS
Log Sirt1 0.56 ± 0.35 0.62 ± 0.29 0.47 ± 0.42 0.62 ± 0.29 NS
Log CCR2 −0.06 ± 0.32 0.11 ± 0.29 −0.12 ± 0.36 −0.09 ± 0.32 NS
Log TNF −0.52 ± 0.54 −0.57 ± 0.57 −0.94 ± 0.26 −0.26 ± 0.52 NS
Log LOX1 −0.36 ± 0.41 −0.34 ± 0.38 −0.44 ± 0.42 −0.32 ± 0.46 NS
  • Data are percentage or means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. P value is reported for significant differences among groups tested with ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test. NGT, normal glucose tolerance; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; 2 h p-l, 2 h postglucose load; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; FMD, flow-mediated dilation; sIL6 R, soluble IL-6 receptor; sTNF R1, soluble TNF receptor 1.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 60 no. 12 3265-3270