Maternal Serum Levels of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D During Pregnancy and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in the Offspring

  1. Lars C. Stene7
  1. 1Department of Pediatrics, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, Oslo, Norway
  2. 2Department of Health Management and Health Economics, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  3. 3Department of Medical Microbiology, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Rud, Norway
  4. 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Akershus University Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  5. 5Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  6. 6Hormone Laboratory, Oslo University Hospital Aker, Oslo, Norway
  7. 7Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  1. Corresponding author: Ingvild M. Sørensen, i.m.sorensen{at}


Previous studies indicate reduced risk of type 1 diabetes after intake of vitamin D supplements during pregnancy or early childhood. We aimed to test whether lower maternal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH D) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. In this case-control study nested within a cohort of 29,072 women in Norway, 25-OH D levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay on samples from late pregnancy in 109 women delivering a child who developed type 1 diabetes before 15 years of age (case subjects) and from 219 control women. Dividing the levels of maternal 25-OH D into quartiles, there was a trend toward a higher risk of type 1 diabetes with lower levels of vitamin D during pregnancy. The odds of type 1 diabetes was more than twofold higher for the offspring of women with the lowest levels of 25-OH D compared with the offspring of those with levels above the upper quartile. Given future replication in independent cohorts, our findings provide support for the initiation of a randomized intervention trial to prevent type 1 diabetes in children by enhancing maternal 25-OH D status during pregnancy.


  • Received June 24, 2011.
  • Accepted October 5, 2011.

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