Evaluation of the existence of a diurnal pattern of glucose tolerance after mixed meals is important to inform a closed-loop system of treatment for insulin requiring diabetes. We studied 20 healthy volunteers with normal fasting glucose (4.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L) and HbA1c (5.2 ± 0.0%) to determine such a pattern in nondiabetic individuals. Identical mixed meals were ingested during breakfast, lunch, or dinner at 0700, 1300, and 1900 h in randomized Latin square order on 3 consecutive days. Physical activity was the same on all days. Postprandial glucose turnover was measured using the triple tracer technique. Postprandial glucose excursion was significantly lower (P < 0.01) at breakfast than lunch and dinner. β-Cell responsivity to glucose and disposition index was higher (P < 0.01) at breakfast than lunch and dinner. Hepatic insulin extraction was lower (P < 0.01) at breakfast than dinner. Although meal glucose appearance did not differ between meals, suppression of endogenous glucose production tended to be lower (P < 0.01) and insulin sensitivity tended to be higher (P < 0.01) at breakfast than at lunch or dinner. Our results suggest a diurnal pattern to glucose tolerance in healthy humans, and if present in type 1 diabetes, it will need to be incorporated into artificial pancreas systems.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/db11-1478/-/DC1.
- Received October 20, 2011.
- Accepted April 24, 2012.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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