Endothelial Progenitor Cells Carrying Monocyte Markers Are Selectively Abnormal in Type 1 Diabetic Patients With Early Retinopathy
- Gianpaolo Zerbini1⇓,
- Anna Maestroni1,
- Alessio Palini2,
- Gemma Tremolada3,
- Rosangela Lattanzio3,
- Silvia Maestroni1,
- Matteo Rocco Pastore4,
- Antonio Secchi4,
- Riccardo Bonfanti5,
- Chiara Gerhardinger6 and
- Mara Lorenzi6
- 1Diabetes Complications Unit, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
- 2Flow Cytometry Resource Laboratory, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
- 3Department of Ophthalmology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
- 4Department of Medicine, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
- 5Department of Pediatrics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
- 6Schepens Eye Research Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
- Corresponding author: Gianpaolo Zerbini, .
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) enter the systemic circulation in response to cues related to vascular damage and need for neovascularization. Thus, EPCs could become readily accessible informers of vascular status and enable the survey of vascular pathologies during preclinical stages. To identify EPC changes with biomarker potential, we investigated whether discrete EPC abnormalities were associated with early nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). Two EPC subtypes with different functions have been characterized to date—one solely committed to the endothelial lineage and the other carrying both endothelial and monocytic markers. We found that only the latter, colony-forming units (CFU)-Hill cells, manifested abnormalities in type 1 diabetic patients with NPDR compared with control subjects. The abnormalities consisted in an increased number of colonies formed in vitro and downregulation of the molecules that facilitate homing at sites of vascular injury. The abnormalities were absent in type 1 diabetic patients free of retinopathy and other complications, despite long diabetes duration, but were detected in some of the patients without clinical retinopathy after short diabetes duration. CFU-Hill cells are potential informers of diabetic microangiopathy but may be preempted from carrying out reparative functions if the molecular abnormalities compromise interactions with the damaged vascular wall.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/db11-1197/-/DC1.
- Received August 25, 2011.
- Accepted December 28, 2011.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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