Different sleep-wake patterns in MUFA- and SFA-fed mice and after intracerebroventricular application of palmitic acid. A–C: Diurnal variations of wakefulness (wake), NREM sleep, and REM sleep in MUFA- (gray circles), SFA- (black circles), or chow-fed
(white circles) mice. Data (mean ± SEM of 11–24 animals/diet group) are expressed as minutes per hour for each hour over a
24-h episode (light on 7:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.). Statistically significant differences between fat-enriched diet groups and control group are depicted by asterisks (*P < 0.05 and **P < 0.005). Impact of intracerebroventricularly injected palmitic acid (225 μmol/L total, black circles) on wakefulness (wake)
(D), NREM sleep (E), and REM sleep (F) vs. intracerebroventricularly applicated vehicle (white circles) in control mice. Data (mean ± SEM of 13–16 animals) are
expressed as described above. Significant differences between intracerebroventricular palmitic acid and vehicle application
are presented as follows: **P < 0.005 and ***P < 0.001.