Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Normoalbuminuric Type 1 Diabetic Patients
- Ulrik Madvig Mogensen1⇓,
- Tonny Jensen2,
- Lars Køber1,
- Henning Kelbæk1,
- Anne Sophie Mathiesen2,
- Ulrik Dixen3,
- Peter Rossing4,
- Jannik Hilsted2 and
- Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed1,5
- 1The Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
- 2Department of Endocrinology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
- 3Department of Cardiology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
- 4Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark
- 5Department of Radiology, Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
- Corresponding author: Ulrik Madvig Mogensen, .
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with increased mortality in diabetes. Since CAN often develops in parallel with diabetic nephropathy as a confounder, we aimed to investigate the isolated impact of CAN on cardiovascular disease in normoalbuminuric patients. Fifty-six normoalbuminuric, type 1 diabetic patients were divided into 26 with (+) and 30 without (−) CAN according to tests of their autonomic nerve function. Coronary artery plaque burden and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) were evaluated using computed tomography. Left ventricular function was evaluated using echocardiography. Blood pressure and electrocardiography were recorded through 24 h to evaluate nocturnal drop in blood pressure (dipping) and pulse pressure. In patients +CAN compared with −CAN, the CACS was higher, and only patients +CAN had a CACS >400. A trend toward a higher prevalence of coronary plaques and flow-limiting stenosis in patients +CAN was nonsignificant. In patients +CAN, left ventricular function was decreased in both diastole and systole, nondipping was more prevalent, and pulse pressure was increased compared with −CAN. In multivariable analysis, CAN was independently associated with increased CACS, subclinical left ventricular dysfunction, and increased pulse pressure. In conclusion, CAN in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients is associated with distinct signs of subclinical cardiovascular disease.
- Received September 2, 2011.
- Accepted February 23, 2012.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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