Response to Comment on: Kim et al. Deficiency for Costimulatory Receptor 4-1BB Protects Against Obesity-Induced Inflammation and Metabolic Disorders. Diabetes 2011;60:3159–3168

  1. Rina Yu
  1. From the Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Ulsan, Ulsan, South Korea
  1. Corresponding author: Rina Yu, rinayu{at}

I thank Drs. Gomez-Mejiba and Ramirez for their letter (1) and for initiating further discussion of possible mechanisms underlying the effects of 4-1BB stimulation/deficiency on the obesity-induced responses of T cells/macrophages in adipose tissue (2,3), and how both conditions can lead to protection against metabolic complications.

Obesity-induced adipose inflammation is currently considered to create an optimal environment for autoimmune effects to take root (4). 4-1BB stimulation with agonistic anti–4-1BB antibody is known to attenuate many …

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  1. doi: 10.2337/db12-0356 Diabetes vol. 61 no. 7 e7
  1. Free via Open Access: OA