Upregulated activation of casapse-1, IL-1β maturation, and production of IL-1β and IL-18 in MDMs from patients with type 2
diabetes (T2D) compared with healthy controls (HCs). MDMs were isolated from T2D patients (n = 47) and HCs (n = 57) were primed with LPS (10 ng/mL) for 4 h and stimulated with various ligands: ATP (1 mmol/L for 1 h), MSU (100 μg/mL
for 6 h), FFAs (200 μmol/L for 16 h), and IAPP (10 μmol/L for 16 h). A: Western blotting analysis to determine caspase-1 (Casp1) and IL-1β protein levels (cell lysates [Cell], Casp1 p45, and pro-IL-1β
[31 kDa]; supernatants [SN], cleaved Casp1 p10, and mature IL-1β [17 kDa]). The intensity of each band for each protein was
quantified and normalized to the housekeeping gene β-actin (A, bottom). Data are expressed as means ± SEM. B: ELISA of IL-1β (top) and IL-18 (bottom) levels in culture supernatants. Cells were left untreated (U; left) or treated with
the indicated ligands. Results are expressed as the mean of triplicate samples. Data are representative of two independent
experiments. ***P < 0.001 vs. HCs. A, ATP; M, MSU; F, FFAs; I, IAPP.