Consequences of formation of intracellular toxic IAPP oligomers (cylindrins) in T2DM. Toxic IAPP oligomers (in red) are formed
intracellularly in β-cells and escape from the secretory pathway leading to intracellular membrane disruption (ER, Golgi,
vesicles, mitochondria), ER stress, alteration of proteasomal degradation through deficit in UCH-L1, and alteration of the
autophagy/lysosomal degradation, ultimately leading to β-cell failure and apoptosis (49,50,53,58).