β-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes: A Case of Asking Too Much of Too Few?

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FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Consequences of formation of intracellular toxic IAPP oligomers (cylindrins) in T2DM. Toxic IAPP oligomers (in red) are formed intracellularly in β-cells and escape from the secretory pathway leading to intracellular membrane disruption (ER, Golgi, vesicles, mitochondria), ER stress, alteration of proteasomal degradation through deficit in UCH-L1, and alteration of the autophagy/lysosomal degradation, ultimately leading to β-cell failure and apoptosis (49,50,53,58).

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 62 no. 2 327-335