We studied the protective effect of stromal cell-derived factor-1β (SDF-1β) on cardiac cells from lipotoxicity in vitro and diabetes in vivo. Exposure of cardiac cells to palmitate increased apoptosis by activating NADPH oxidase (NOX)–associated nitrosative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which was abolished by pretreatment with SDF-1β via upregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)–mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production. The SDF-1β cardiac protection could be abolished by inhibition of AMPK, p38 MAPK, or IL-6. Activation of AMPK or addition of recombinant IL-6 recaptured a similar cardiac protection. SDF-1β receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) antagonist AMD3100 or CXCR4 small interfering RNA could not, but CXCR7 small interfering RNA completely abolished SDF-1β’s protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis and activation of AMPK and p38 MAPK. Administration of SDF-1β to diabetic rats, induced by feeding a high-fat diet, followed by a small dose of streptozotocin, could significantly reduce cardiac apoptosis and increase AMPK phosphorylation along with prevention of diabetes-induced cardiac oxidative damage, inflammation, hypertrophy, and remodeling. These results showed that SDF-1β protects against palmitate-induced cardiac apoptosis, which is mediated by NOX-activated nitrosative damage and ER stress, via CXCR7, to activate AMPK/p38 MAPK–mediated IL-6 generation. The cardiac protection by SDF-1β from diabetes-induced oxidative damage, cell death, and remodeling was also associated with AMPK activation.
This article contains Supplementary Data online at http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.2337/db12-1233/-/DC1.
- Received September 7, 2012.
- Accepted February 7, 2013.
- © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.
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