Remodeling of Lipid Metabolism by Dietary Restriction of Essential Amino Acids

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FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Model of proposed anatomical organization of sites contributing to sensing and coordinating tissue-specific and overall physiological responses to dietary EAA deprivation or dietary MR. The model illustrates the sites where EAA sensing has been detected (liver, WAT, brown adipose tissue, hypothalamus, anterior piriform cortex) or is suspected (gut) as well as target tissues where responses have been measured. The model proposes a potential role for vagal afferents (green lines) in providing sensory input to the brainstem from the gut about decreases in methionine or EAA intake. The model proposes that increased SNS outflow (red lines) serves as a motor arm linking hypothalamic EAA sensing to peripheral target tissues, where the effects include tissue-specific transcriptional responses, changes in endocrine function (WAT and brown adipose tissue), and thermogenic activity (WAT and brown adipose tissue). Central detection of EAAs is proposed to impact energy balance through integrated effects on energy intake and expenditure. MR increases both energy intake and expenditure, whereas leucine deprivation decreases energy intake and increases EE. Together, Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate the anatomical and temporal organization of the responses to MR and leucine deprivation. APC, anterior piriform cortex; DMH, dorsomedial hypothalamus; DVC, dorsal vagal complex; LH, lateral hypothalamus; hypo, hypothalamus; VMH, ventromedial hypothalamus.

This Article

  1. Diabetes vol. 62 no. 8 2635-2644