Hyperphosphorylation of CaMKII, SMAD2, and MAPK in LRT. A–E: Phosphorylation of proteins involved in calcium, MAPK, and TGF-β MAPK signaling were measured by Western blotting in lysates
from gastrocnemius muscle under resting conditions (basal) or immediately after an acute bout of exercise (exercise). ERK,
extracellular signal–regulated kinase; P38, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase; SMAD, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog.
n = 6–7/group. *P < 0.05 for phenotype main effect; ^P < 0.05 for exercise main effect; °P < 0.05 for phenotype–exercise interaction by 2-way ANOVA. P values obtained by Tukey post hoc testing are displayed. AU, arbitrary units.