Induction of antigen-dependent CD4+ T-cell proliferation in adipose tissue in vivo. A: Proliferation of adoptively transferred CFSE-labeled OT-II CD4+ cells in eWAT from lean mice 3 days after intraperitoneal injection of OVA or BSA. Quantitation of adoptively transferred
(CD45.2+) (B) and total (C) CD4+ cells in eWAT, omental (oWAT), and mesenteric (mWAT) fat depots and spleen from lean mice 3 days after intraperitoneal injection
of OVA or BSA. Data are means ± SEM (n = 4 per group). Purified CD4+ OT-II T cells were adoptively transferred into obese mice (12 weeks on HFD). OVA or BSA was injected intraperitoneally 24
h after adoptive transfer. Cells from eWAT, spleen, and blood were analyzed by flow cytometry 5 days after antigen exposure.
D: ATM and ATT content in eWAT from HFD mice. E: CD3+ ATTs in eWAT from HFD mice expressed as a percentage of SVCs. F: Quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in eWAT and blood from HFD mice. G: Quantification of Ki-67+ CD4+ T cells in eWAT and spleen from HFD mice. H: Quantification of ATM subtypes in eWAT from HFD mice. DN, double negative; DP, double positive. I: Random-fed blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in HFD mice. D–I: Data are means ± SEM (n = 3 mice per group). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. control (BSA).