Ectopic expression of pancreatic TFs reprograms exocrine pancreatic MSCs into glucagon-positive cells. A: Passaged human exocrine pancreatic fractions were plated in tissue culture dishes and subsequently transduced with different
combinations of adenoviruses expressing the pancreatic TFs Pdx1 (P), MafA (M), Pax4 (Px), and Ngn3 (N), each with a multiplicity
of infection of 100. After 7 days, QRT-PCR was performed and the data were expressed relative to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
dehydrogenase and presented as mean ± SEM (n = 3). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001. INS, insulin; GLC, glucagon; SST, somatostatin; N/A, nontreated samples. B: Exocrine cells treated with different combinations of adenoviruses expressing P, M, and N in the presence or absence of
Px were stained for the expression of glucagon, and cell nuclei were counterstained with DAPI. Scale bar = 20 µm.