Restoration of ECs parallels with β-cell regeneration. A: Fluorescence microscopy images of PECAM1 (red) and insulin (green) immunostaining of pancreatic sections from mice given
Ig-GAD2, BM, or Ig-GAD2+BM. Islet boundary is depicted by dashed lines. Scale bars, 50 μm. The bar graph represents quantification
of PECAM1+ cells per islet (five mice per group). Islets (10–30) from three to six nonserial sections per mouse were examined. B: Quantitative PCR analysis for cdh5, tie1, and flt1 expression in pancreatic islets of the mice described in A as well as untreated healthy and diabetic controls (four to eight mice per group). C: Confocal microscopy images of insulin (green) and ki-67 (red) staining of pancreatic sections from Ig-GAD2+BM–treated (day
60 of treatment), healthy (untreated, 4–6 weeks of age), and diabetic (day 1 of diagnosis) mice. The arrows depict insulin+ki-67+ cells. Scale bars, 10 μm. The bar graphs represent the number of insulin+ki-67+ cells per section (left) and the ratio of insulin+ki-67+ over total insulin+ cells per pancreas (right). A total of 3,000 and 7,000 insulin+ cells were counted from 30–40 nonserial sections for the diabetic and Ig-GAD2+BM mice (six per group), respectively. The
bars in the panels represent the mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01.